Human Body Composition. Approaches and Applications

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  1. How to Improve Body Composition, Based on Science
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The 4-CM is not practical for large-scale projects or for young or sick children and is available in only a few centers. However, DXA is easily and quickly performed, safe, and increasingly available. Preliminary same-day intraindividual data in our laboratory indicate that DXA is precise for children and adolescents. An example of a research use of DXA that may lead to clinical application is the prediction of the risk of comorbidities in obese children and adolescents.

Measurement of body composition in children and adolescents is becoming more widespread. Determination of normal values for these measurements and of their relationships to health risk has clinical implications.

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Because DXA is widely available and well tolerated by pediatric subjects, it is important that pediatricians understand the meaning of its results. Recognition that DXA differs from the criterion measure and that not all DXA systems are the same will lead to better interpretation of research and clinical results. Results from these will add to the findings of this report and will enhance the use of DXA for defining the relationship between body composition and health outcome. Because the prevention of adult disease is a central goal of pediatrics, practicing pediatricians should be knowledgeable about this body composition technique.

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Recent Activity. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 4. PMID: Aviva B. Pierson, Jr.

How to Improve Body Composition, Based on Science

John C. Richard N. Steven B. Reprint requests to M. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Pediatrics. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Body Fat Composition Analysis

Keywords: body composition, percentage of body fat, obesity, pediatrics, children, adolescents, 4-compartment model, DXA. Anthropometric Measurements The following anthropometric measures were made as previously described 40 : chest, biceps, thorax, umbilicus, suprailiac, abdomen, thigh, subscapular, triceps, calf, and suprascapular skinfolds; upper arm, wrist, upper chest, chest, waist, iliac crest, thigh, and calf circumferences; and arm and thigh lengths. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. J Am Diet Assoc. Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Prevention of pediatric obesity.

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Humana Press; Totowa, NJ: Defining health related obesity in prepubertal children. Obes Res. Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine Study. J Am Coll Cardiol.

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The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. Presence of increased stiffness of the common carotid artery and endothelial dysfunction in severely obese children: a prospective study. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of to N Engl J Med. The relationship of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Degree of fatness after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

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Prospective evaluation of growth, nutritional status, and body composition in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. Body composition in prepubertal children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Goran MI.

Measurement issues related to studies of childhood obesity: assessment of body composition, body fat distribution, physical activity, and food intake. Lohman TG. Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Use of body mass index BMI as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. Roche AF. Methodological considerations in the assessment of childhood obesity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Horlick M. Body mass index in childhood—measuring a moving target. Reliability of body-fat estimations from a four-compartment model by using density, body water, and bone mineral measurements. Whole body air displacement plethysmography compared with hydrodensitometry for body composition analysis.

Arch Dis Child. Four-component model of body composition in children: density and hydration of fat-free mass and comparison with simpler models. Body composition techniques and the four-compartment model in children. J Appl Physiol. Alterations in growth and body composition during puberty. Comparing multicompartment body composition models. Evaluating body fat in girls and female adolescents: advantages and disadvantages of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Prediction of body fat in year-old African American and white children: evaluation of methods. Tanner JM. Growth and Adolescence. Blackwell; Oxford, UK: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for total-body and regional bone-mineral and soft-tissue composition. Comparison of dual-photon absorptiometry systems for total-body and soft tissue measurements: dual-energy x-rays versus gadolinium J Bone Miner Res. Lukaski H, Johnson PE. A simple inexpensive method for determining total body water using a tracer dose of D 2 O and infrared absorption of biological fluids.

Total body water by D 2 O dilution using saliva samples and gas chromatography. Olson KE. Determination of total body water and its turnover rate. Acta Chir Scand. Reliability of in vivo neutron activation analysis for measuring body composition: comparisons with tracer dilution and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Impedance is determined primarily by the volume of fluid present in the electrical pathway. In standard whole-body BIA methods, the nurse places electrodes on the hand and foot; however, segmental measurements, such as the leg-to-leg system based on pressure-contact foot pad electrodes, are receiving increasing attention An important limitation of BIA methods is that many underlying assumptions are made, some of which have not been adequately explored.

Traditional BIA methods use a geometric model that assumes that the component of interest is homogeneous in composition. However, the typical electrical pathways used with BIA in humans fail to meet this condition. BIA methods, therefore, should be used only under appropriate and carefully controlled conditions Interactance systems also are inexpensive, easily transportable, and simple to operate by healthcare professionals. Infrared interactance, also known as near-infrared interactance, is a method that has been proposed for the determination of human body composition. This technique is based on the principles of light absorption and reflection using near-infrared spectroscopy.

When electromagnetic radiation strikes a material, energy is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted depending on the dispersive and absorptive properties of the material. This technique was developed for the purpose of estimating the starch, protein, oil and water content of safflower seeds and oil. For estimates of human body composition, a computerized spectrophotometer with a simple, rapid monochromatic scanner and a fiber optic probe are used.

The electromagnetic radiation used is in the wavelength range of to nm. First, the probe emits electromagnetic radiation in the selected body site, and then it receives the interactive energy, which is a combination of the reflected and dispersed energy that it conducts to the detector. The signal penetrates tissue to a depth of 1 cm, and the composition is determined only at the measurement site. The interactance data are calculated by the instrument as the range of energy received from a target site relative to the energy received from a standard calibrator, which is a 1-cm thick Teflon block.